Dr. Alex Jimenez, El Paso's Chiropractor
I hope you have enjoyed our blog posts on various health, nutritional and injury related topics. Please don't hesitate in calling us or myself if you have questions when the need to seek care arises. Call the office or myself. Office 915-850-0900 - Cell 915-540-8444 Great Regards. Dr. J

There is a very tight interaction between women’s health, hormonal influence, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. Also, breastfeeding is a practice that has ties to community culture and family, both important contributors to women’s health. Nevertheless, breastmilk is essential for infant nutrition and should be exclusive for the first 6 months, as recommended by the CDC, AAP, ACOG, and many other major health organizations. Indeed, hormones and breastfeeding’s physiology plays a determining factor in breast function, babies’ nutrition, and the dyad interaction.

 

Breast development:

 

There is no glandular organ that is everchanging like the breast tissue since the transformation starts in the 20-day-old embryo with milk lines proliferation and will eventually develop into mammary ridges.  Later, at week 6, the areola and nipple start to form in the same way the milk ducts are developing. The process will remain inactive until puberty, when the breast bud development is influenced by estrogen, progesterone, corticosteroids, and thyroxine. These hormones will also influence the growth of alveolar buds and milk ducts with every new menstruation cycle.

 

Lactation physiology:

 

Lactogenesis I
 15–20 weeks of gestation. This stage is hormonally driven. All women will be able to synthesize milk components. Colostrum production begins midway through the pregnancy.

§  Initiation of milk synthesis from mid-pregnancy to late pregnancy.

§  Differentiation of alveolar cells into secretory cells.

§  Prolactin stimulates mammary secretory epithelial cells to produce milk.

Lactogenesis II
 30–40 hours after birth. It is initiated by the birth of an infant plus removal of the placenta. For lactogenesis II to begin, progesterone levels have to drop dramatically to allow prolactin and other hormones like insulin, thyroxin, cortisol, and oxytocin to take action. Women feel increased breast fullness during this stage, which commonly lasts 30-40 hours after birth.

§  Closure of tight junctions in the alveolar cell.

§  Triggered by the rapid drop in the mother’s progesterone levels.

§  Onset of copious secretion of milk.

§  Fullness and warmth in breasts.

§  Switch from endocrine to autocrine control.

 

Lactogenesis III
 (Galactopoesis) This stage will only continue if milk production is driven in the individual.  A steady stimulation, supply, and removal of breastmilk are the factors that keep this stage going, and it is not driven by autocrine control.

§  Maintenance of established secretion and breastfeeding.

§  Control by the autocrine system (supply-demand).

§  Breast size decreases between 6 and 9 months postpartum.

 

An additional stage has been suggested previously, and it is called involution. Involution is present after 40 days after the last breastfeeding. Eventually, in this stage, the milk-producing epithelial cells are removed; they are 2 steps to this process.

1.     Death of secretory epithelium.

2.     Replacement of milk-producing epithelial cells with adipocytes.

 
Maternal conditions impacting breastfeeding:
Primiparity Maternal age +30
Cesarean birth Long stage II of labor
Maternal fluid overload obesity/BMI
PCOS Diabetes type I or II
Analgesia on labor Placental retention
Stress Breast surgery (in some cases)

 

Hormones involved in breastfeeding:

Prolactin Growth: nipple, breast mass, and areola.

Released by the anterior pituitary gland by angiotensin II, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and vasopressin.

Levels of prolactin rise when there are nipple stimulation and breast emptying.

Initiates and maintains milk production, and it works along with oxytocin.

§  Prolactin follows a circadian rhythm; its levels are higher in the day.

§  Since levels rise with suckling stimulation, and they can remain high even if a mother breastfeeds for years.

§  High levels of prolactin induce ovulation delay, inhibiting follicle-stimulating hormone.

§  Smoking is associated with low levels of prolactin.

§  Depression is linked to low serum prolactin levels.

§  Present in breastmilk.

§  Suckling stimulation increases the development of prolactin receptors at the mammary gland.

Cortisol This hormone works synergistically with prolactin to stimulate milk production in the mammary system. The presence of prolactin and the interaction between insulin and cortisol allows cell differentiation of epithelial cells into mature milk cells.

Corticoids secreted by the adrenal glands regulate water transport across cell membranes during lactation.

High cortisol levels are linked to a delay in lactogenesis.

Progesterone Growth: lobes, lobules, alveoli.

Required to maintain pregnancy and interferes with prolactin action at the alveolar cell receptor level. It reduces its action and levels when the placenta is removed.

Inhibition of lactation and milk secretion.

Prolactin-inhibiting factor PIF is secreted by the hypothalamus and is believed to be mediated by dopamine. Dopamine itself inhibits prolactin secretion.

§  Milk removal and nipple stimulation inhibit PIF and dopamine secretion.

Oxytocin (stimulated by suckling) The posterior pituitary gland releases oxytocin with suckling.

§  Causes milk-ejection reflex, commonly called letdown.

§  Contracts the myoepithelial cells that surround the alveoli, resulting in milk removal from the breast.

§  It is released in pulsatile waves and carried through the bloodstream to the breasts.

§  Oxytocin serum levels rise within 1 minute of nipple stimulation.

§  Oxytocin influence is associated with calmness in mothers and reported sedation and lower corticosteroid levels in rats.

§  Oxytocin is reversely associated with ACTH, cortisol, glucose, and norepinephrine.

The impact that endocrine hormones have on lactation and breastfeeding is remarkable; therefore, it cannot be surpassed when assessing women’s health. Nevertheless, autocrine control associated with stimulation and environmental factors that might affect the hormonal secretion or autocrine control can delay and affect lactation.

Besides, the preparation that comes with having a baby allows us to understand what a new life needs to excel in this world. Every mother and/or parent wants the best for their children. Indeed, preparation leads to change, a change for the best. Therefore, some of the actions required to improve our health as women and provide the best for our children rely on what we do today. -Ana Paola Rodríguez Arciniega. Master in Clinical Nutrition.

Prevention:

Nowadays, 32% of women of childbearing age have a BMI greater than 30. Overweight and obesity are linked to shorter breastfeeding duration and are less likely to breastfeed.

  • Keep an active lifestyle. Start today, walk for 30 min!
  • Maintain a normal BMI. Start today, quit soda. You already did? Add vegetables to every meal, have a breakfast smoothie.
  • If you have problems losing weight, look for professional guidance.
  • Prepare your meals in advance. You will be less likely to go hungry and eat whatever is available. Start today. It is cold, right? How about chicken, vegetables, and rice soup. Let’s cook a double batch.
  • Assess your health periodically.
  • Maintain a close link with your community, family, and friends. If it is going to be a long journey, travel with someone.
  • Practice self-care. Start today with a guided meditation.
  • Please keep it simple and manageable; make it possible.
Assess your genes

Knowledge and technology can work together and provide a better understanding of the hormonal status and how to improve it. DNA life with DNAoestrogen can aid patients and healthcare providers to achieve a balanced and optimal hormonal status through personalized testing and treatment.

 

References

Sriraman, Natasha K. “The nuts and bolts of breastfeeding: anatomy and physiology of lactation.” Current problems in pediatric and adolescent health care 47.12 (2017): 305-310.

Truchet, Sandrine, and Edith Honvo-Houéto. “Physiology of milk secretion.” Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 31.4 (2017): 367-384.

Wambach, Karen, and Becky Spencer. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation. 6th ed., Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2021.

 

Additional Online Links & Resources (Available 24/7)

Online Appointments or Consultations:  https://bit.ly/Book-Online-Appointment

Online Physical Injury / Accident Intake Form: https://bit.ly/Fill-Out-Your-Online-History

Online Functional Medicine Assessment: https://bit.ly/functionmed

Disclaimer

Our information scope is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal, physical medicines, wellness, and sensitive health issues and functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We provide and present clinical collaboration with specialists from a wide array of disciplines. Each specialist is governed by their professional scope of practice and their jurisdiction of licensure. We use functional health & wellness protocols to treat and support care for the musculoskeletal system’s injuries or disorders. Our posts, topics, subjects, and insights cover clinical matters, issues, and topics that relate and support, directly or indirectly, our clinical scope of practice.* Our office has made a reasonable attempt to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research study or studies supporting our posts. We also make copies of supporting research studies available to the board and or the public upon request. We understand that we cover matters that require an additional explanation of how it may assist in a particular care plan or treatment protocol; therefore, to further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900.  The provider(s) Licensed in Texas*& New Mexico* 

 

Again, I Welcome You 👊🏻.

Our Purpose & Passions: I am a Doctor of Chiropractic specializing in progressive, cutting-edge therapies and functional rehabilitation procedures focused on clinical physiology, total health, practical strength training, and complete conditioning. We focus on restoring normal body functions after neck, back, spinal and soft tissue injuries.

We use Specialized Chiropractic Protocols, Wellness Programs, Functional & Integrative Nutrition, Agility & Mobility Fitness Training, and Rehabilitation Systems for all ages.

As an extension to effective rehabilitation, we too offer our patients, disabled veterans, athletes, young and elder a diverse portfolio of strength equipment, high-performance exercises, and advanced agility treatment options. We have teamed up with the cities premier doctors, therapists,s, and trainers to provide high-level competitive athletes the possibilities to push themselves to their highest abilities within our facilities.

We’ve been blessed to use our methods with thousands of El Pasoans over the last three decades allowing us to restore our patients’ health and fitness while implementing researched non-surgical methods and functional wellness programs.

Our programs are natural and use the body’s ability to achieve specific measured goals, rather than introducing harmful chemicals, controversial hormone replacement, unwanted surgeries, or addictive drugs. We want you to live a functional life that is fulfilled with more energy, a positive attitude, better sleep, and less pain. Our goal is to ultimately empower our patients to maintain the healthiest way of living.

With a bit of work, we can achieve optimal health together, no matter the age or disability.

Join us in improving your health for you and your family.

It’s all about: LIVING, LOVING & MATTERING! 🍎

Welcome & God Bless

EL PASO LOCATIONS

Central:
6440 Gateway East, Ste B
Phone: 915-850-0900

East Side:
11860 Vista Del Sol, Ste 128
Phone: 915-412-6677

Clinic Location 1

Address: 11860 Vista Del Sol Dr Suite 128
El Paso, TX 79936
Phone
: (915) 412-6677
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Clinic Location 2

Address: 6440 Gateway East, Building B
El Paso, TX 79905
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Clinic Location 3

Address: 1700 N Zaragoza Rd # 117
El Paso, TX 79936
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El Paso, TX 79905
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Additional Online Links & Resources (Available 24/7)

  1. Online Appointments or Consultations:  https://bit.ly/Book-Online-Appointment
  2. Online Physical Injury / Accident Intake Form: https://bit.ly/Fill-Out-Your-Online-History
  3. Online Functional Medicine Assessment: https://bit.ly/functionmed

Disclaimer

The information herein is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional, licensed physician, and is not medical advice. We encourage you to make your own health care decisions based on your research and partnership with a qualified health care professional. Our information scope is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal, physical medicines, wellness, sensitive health issues, functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We provide and present clinical collaboration with specialists from a wide array of disciplines. Each specialist is governed by their professional scope of practice and their jurisdiction of licensure. We use functional health & wellness protocols to treat and support care for the musculoskeletal system’s injuries or disorders. Our videos, posts, topics, subjects, and insights cover clinical matters, issues, and topics that relate to and support, directly or indirectly, our clinical scope of practice.* Our office has made a reasonable attempt to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research study or studies supporting our posts. We provide copies of supporting research studies available to regulatory boards and the public upon request. We understand that we cover matters that require an additional explanation of how it may assist in a particular care plan or treatment protocol; therefore, to further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 Read More…

Dr. Alex Jimenez DC, MSACP, CCST, IFMCP*, CIFM*, CTG* 

email: coach@elpasofunctionalmedicine.com
phone: 915-850-0900
Licensed in Texas & New Mexico