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Case Control Studies compare patients who have a disease or outcome of interest (cases) with patients who do not have the disease or outcome (controls), and look back in retrospect to compare how frequently the exposure to a risk factor is present in each group to determine the relationship between the risk factor and the disease. Case control studies are observational because no type of intervention is attempted and no attempt is made to alter the course of the disease or condition. The goal is to determine the exposure to the risk factor of interest from each of the two groups of individuals retrospectively: These studies are designed to estimate odds.
These types of studies are also known as Retrospective Studies, & Case Referent Studies.
1. Case-control studies work backwards: They first identify diseased and non-diseased individuals, and then ascertain the frequency of previous exposures.
2. Ideal characteristics for selecting cases:
a. Select individuals who have incident disease
b. Use a specific definition of the disease
Answers questions that could not be answered from other studies
Good for studying rare conditions and diseases
Less time needed to conduct the study because the condition or disease has happened
Looks at multiple risk factors at the same time
Useful as initial studies to establish association
Difficult to find a control group
Not good for evaluating diagnostic tests.
Cases have the condition and the Controls do not.
Retrospective studies problem with data quality from the reliance on memory
People with a condition are more motivated to recall risk factors.
For Answers to any questions you may have please call Dr. Jimenez at 915-850-0900